VISA AND ASYLUM – Red Alert on Turkey – Unfair in Kosovo – Germany's problem

2/2015
10 March 2015


Gerald Knaus

Surprising facts – striking tables on visa and asylum

All data is from Eurostat, extracted on 9 March 2015, with the data from Austria missing, unless stated otherwise)


First-instance asylum recognition rates - EU 2014

 

Decisions made

Refugee status - Geneva Convention

Subsidiary protection

Recognition rate (Refugee status + subs. protection)

Syria

69,810

35,760

29,575

94%

Eritrea

15,885

9,675

4,275

88%

Iraq

10,585

4,980

1,960

66%

Iran

8,685

4,730

230

57%

Somalia

9,415

2,175

3,180

57%

Afghanistan

17,845

4,970

4,235

52%

Libya

1,335

405

130

40%

Belarus

470

100

30

28%

Russia

12,355

2,275

405

22%

China

5,110

1,060

60

22%

Kazakhstan

570

100

25

22%

Egypt

2,895

510

85

21%

Pakistan

15,810

1,980

1,065

19%

Turkey

4,590

585

175

17%

Azerbaijan

2,225

340

10

16%

Ukraine

2,985

105

365

16%

Lebanon

885

85

35

14%

Moldova

170

10

10

12%

Morocco

1,835

120

35

8.4%

Armenia

3,900

200

95

7.6%

Bangladesh

7,370

410

80

6.6%

Algeria

2,995

110

85

6.5%

Albania

13,390

215

560

5.8%

Kosovo

13,220

440

290

5.5%

Tunisia

1,450

40

35

5.2%

Georgia

6,145

180

70

4.1%

Bosnia

7,210

155

55

2.9%

India

1,695

25

20

2.7%

Montenegro

1,355

5

20

1.8%

Serbia

22,085

260

55

1.4%

Macedonia

8,195

30

15

0.5%

 

Top 30 nationalities – asylum claims – EU 2014

Country

No. of asylum claims

1.      Syria

115,060

2.      Eritrea

36,880

3.      Afghanistan

36,230

4.      Kosovo

35,970

5.      Serbia

30,450

6.      Pakistan

21,525

7.      Iraq

20,225

8.      Nigeria

19,280

9.      Russia

17,685

10.  Albania

16,740

11.  Somalia

15,745

12.  Ukraine

13,585

13.  Mali

12,885

14.  Bangladesh

11,530

15.  Gambia

11,415

16.  Bosnia and H.

10,475

17.  Macedonia

10,170

18.  Iran

10,145

19.  Georgia

8,140

20.  D.R. Congo

7,020

21.  Senegal

6,405

22.  Guinea

6,220

23.  Algeria

6,140

24.  Sudan

6,130

25.  Armenia

5,340

26.  Sri Lanka

5,295

27.  Turkey

4,960

28.  China

4,955

29.  Ghana

4,090

30.  Morocco

3,960

TOTAL

598,755

 

Asylum claims by Western Balkans citizens in the EU

 

2009

(visa)

2011

(visa-free)

2012

2013

2014 (Austria missing)

Serbia

5,460

14,105

19,055

22,375

30,450

Albania

2,065

3,080

7,500

11,075

16,740

Bosnia

1,330

2,655

5,835

7,075

10,475

Macedonia

930

5,555

9,625

11,065

10,170

Montenegro

270

635

1,260

945

1,825

Total of the  WB5 states

10,055

26,030

43,275

52,535

69,660

 

It is all about Germany now

Asylum claims from the five Balkan countries in Germany

 

2009

(visa)

2011

(visa-free)

2012

2013

2014

WB5 claims in the EU

10,055

26,030

43,275

52,535

69,660

WB5 claims in Germany

1,450

9,360

22,715

33,935

53,905

German share

14%

36%

52%

65%

77%

Source: Antwort der Bundesregierung auf eine Kleine Anfrage der Linksfraktion, 28 Jan. 2014

 

Positive asylum decisions in Germany in 2014

 

Refugee status

Subsidiary

Humanitarian

TOTAL

Serbia

1 person (0%)

17 persons (0.1%)

25 persons (0.1%)

0.2%

Macedonia

2 persons (0%)

5 persons (0.1%)

7 persons (2%)

0.3%

Albania

2 persons (0.3%)

11 persons (1.6%)

-

2.6%

Bosnia

-

-

6 (0.2%)

0.3%

Kosovo

-

-

5 persons (0.5%)

0.5%

ALL claimants in Germany

13,053 (30.3%)

456 (1.1%)

577 (1.3%)

 

Source: Antwort der Bundesregierung auf eine Kleine Anfrage der Linksfraktion, 28 Jan. 2014

 

First-instance
2014

First-instance + court Jan-June 2014

Albania

3.6 months

5 months

Bosnia

3.9 months

5.5 months

Serbia

4 months

6.7 months

Kosovo

4.7 months

9.5 months

Macedonia

5.3 months

7.7 months

All claimants in Germany

7.1 months

11.1 months

Source: Antwort der Bundesregierung auf eine Kleine Anfrage der Linksfraktion, 28 Jan. 2014

 

Length of the asylum procedure in Germany –
from first application to court decision

 

First-instance
2014

First-instance + court Jan-June 2014

Albania

3.6 months

5 months

Bosnia

3.9 months

5.5 months

Serbia

4 months

6.7 months

Kosovo

4.7 months

9.5 months

Macedonia

5.3 months

7.7 months

All claimants in Germany

7.1 months

11.1 months

 

Terminology concerning international protection in the EU

Refugee status (persecution) is the highest form of international protection. Under EU asylum legislation, which is based on the 1951 UN Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, EU member states are committed to offering refugee status to third-country nationals that have "a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group" in their home country.

Subsidiary protection (risks of serious harm) is accorded to people who face "risks of serious harm" at home, but who do not meet the UN definition of refugee. The relevant EU Directive defines "serious harm" as "(a) death penalty or execution; or (b) torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment of an applicant in the country of origin; or (c) serious and individual threat to a civilian's life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict."

Humanitarian shelter: Some asylum seekers are allowed to remain in an EU country "for reasons not due to a need for international protection, but on a discretionary basis on compassionate or humanitarian grounds". It is at the discretion of EU member states to grant this status, so it is regulated by national legislation. Most often it is offered to people with medical problems that cannot be treated in their home country. Several EU member states do not submit data on whether they grant such protection since authorities other than asylum authorities deal with it (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal and Slovenia).

At first instance, asylum claims are decided by administrative bodies. Rejected asylum seekers have a right of appeal before a court, so this is the next instance.